Skateboarding is an extreme sport, which is widespread throughout the world. It consists of moving on a special board – a skateboard. Skateboarding is also possible in the style of light, without overcoming obstacles and performing tricks. In this case, the occupation becomes a useful entertainment, helping to improve coordination, posture and just to spend more time in the fresh air. Athleticism and a certain amount of rice appear in the case of using special trails for skating, which include obstacles, or tricks are performed on the ramp. Since 2017, skateboarding has been included in the Olympic sports, and in 2020 at the Olympic Games to be held in Tokyo, athletes will be awarded medals.
The Emergence of Skateboarding
It is believed that skateboarding was first introduced in California. Ostensibly in this way surfers either amused themselves while waiting for the big waves, or practiced, or tried to be on a board always – on land and at sea. However, descriptions of such an activity at that time for some reason also include boxes with wheels, which confuses the situation. A study of the history of youth subcultures in different countries can bring clarity. Even in the pre-war years there was a dangerous hobby – skating on roller skates, boards with wheels and crates. Wheels were attached to the bottom of the latter and to the boards, which were most often made from bearings. Daredevils took long sticks with hooks, hooked or to the side of a truck, accelerated and drove at high speed down the road. It was a separate hobby that spanned Europe, the U.S. and the USSR.
No one knows the name of the person who invented the skateboard, but apparently it was someone who realized – in order to speed it is not necessary to cling to the machines. It is quite possible that he was some surfer from California, who already had the skill to ride a board on the waves.
Roller Derby, 1960s
In the very early 60’s surfboard manufacturers start producing small batches of boards with wheels. The idea was popularized by Skateboarder Magazine. The first factory model was called Roller Derby, and its design was seriously different from the modern one. However, the very first attempts were not widespread, used as a warm-up before surfing.
It is not so important who was the author of the idea of skateboarding itself. Invented the skateboard, in the modern sense of its design features, Larry Stephenson. In the first half of the 60’s he was the publisher of the sports magazine Surf Guide. He organized not only a PR campaign for this sports entertainment, but also the first competitions for teenagers. He produced his own model called the Makaha Surf & Ski Skateboard. Makaha subsequently held the market for about ten years. As early as 1965, 4 million boards were produced. However, the appearance of a huge number of teenagers on the boards was not considered safe by the police. Riding young people started to be fined and even arrested. As a result, all board manufacturers had some financial difficulties and skateboarding experienced a temporary crisis.
The emergence of modern design and further development
The early ’70s were marked by several important developments. Larry Stevenson’s skateboard gets fully modern features. He bends upward the ends of the board. Around the same time, Frank Nasworthy develops polyurethane wheels. They are more compact and improve grip on the road surface. From this period, the skateboard becomes the subject of numerous companies, and Larry enters into endless litigation with them. Then a variety of manufacturers and even institutes begin to experiment with the use of different materials, but in the end establish that there is nothing better than maple plywood.
A skateboard consists of four basic elements:
The deck is the name of the skateboard’s board, and its curved ends are the noose, which is in the front, and the tail, respectively, which is the back;
griptape – wear-resistant sandpaper, which is glued to the deck on top and increases the grip of the soles of skateboarders’ boots with the board;
hangers or tracks, to which the wheels are attached, which should be entirely under the deck;
wheels – diameter, stiffness, material, method of attachment – all this can be very different and related to the intended manner of riding and performing tricks.
Components of a skateboard
There are also bearings in the design, but controversial allocation of them to an autonomous part. It is better to consider them part of the suspension.
The essence of skill comes down to the fact that the skateboarder takes a certain stand and performs tricks. Stands are divided into those that are needed for riding and performing tricks, and only for tricks. The simplest stand implies that the right foot will be on the board, in front of the left, and the left – behind, it becomes a push. The change of legs does not make any fundamental difference. If the pushing left, the rack is called goofy, and if the right, regular. They have two derivatives. Mongo, – front leg jerk and back – click, switch – front and jerk constantly change places.
There are also stands that are only needed to perform tricks, you can’t ride like that for a long time. They are nollie stance, when the front foot is placed on the nose and made a flick, and its derivative, called fakie, when the movement is made with his back to front, with the front foot on the nose of the skateboard.
The tricks themselves are divided into those that are performed on the streets, during the normal riding, and associated with overcoming obstacles or acceleration and jumping on the ramp. The basic is considered an ollie. To perform it you need to rip the whole board off the ground in a flat place and continue moving after its implementation. This is given only by virtue of constant practice.